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Longitudinal Formulation 1

The Longitudinal Formulation is a longitudinal CBT case formulation which addresses the crucial 5 p factors (presenting, predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating, positives). This diagram also includes a cross-sectional component (thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and physical sensations associated with a specific here-and-now situation). This style of formulation can help draw client's attention to the links between their underlying beliefs (schemas), and their patterns of thinking and behaving in the here-and-now.

This is a case formulation (case concetualization) diagram. Put simply, case formulation is one method of a client and therapist coming to shared understanding of a difficulty. The formulation contextualizes the difficulty, making its origin and maintenance understandable. Case formulations are best completed collaboratively, with clients positioned as the 'experts in themselves'.

  • Eells, T. D. (Ed.). (2011). Handbook of psychotherapy case formulation. Guilford Press.
  • Johnstone, L., & Dallos, R. (2013). Formulation in psychology and psychotherapy: Making sense of people's problems. Routledge.
  • Kuyken, W., Padesky, C. A., & Dudley, R. (2008). Collaborative case conceptualization: Working effectively with clients in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Guilford Press.
  • Persons, J. B. (2012). The case formulation approach to cognitive-behavior therapy. Guilford Press.
  • Tarrier, N., & Johnson, J. (Eds.). (2015). Case formulation in cognitive behaviour therapy: The treatment of challenging and complex cases. Routledge.



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Longitudinal Formulation 1