Case conceptualization / Case formulation

Case formulation is the core component of CBT. It can help therapists and clients to understand the origin, current status, and maintenance of problem. Formulations can range from cross-sectional (here and now) to longitudinal (understanding origins), and from models for specific disorders to idiosyncratic for a particular client's situation.

"[Formulation is] The lynch pin that holds theory and practice together" (Butler, 1998)


Information & handouts

Materials by model




  • Collaborative Case Conceptualization Manual and Rating Scale (CCCRS) padesky.com
  • CCCRS Score Sheet and Feedback Form padesky.com

Lectures / Workshops

Key reading

  • Haynes, S. N., Leisen, M. B., Blaine, D. D. (1997). Design of individualized behavioral treatment programs using functional analytic clinical case models. Psychological Assessment, 9(4), 334-348 kent.edu archive.org
  • Kuyken, W., Padesky, C. A., Dudley, R. (2008). The science and practice of case conceptualization. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 757-768 comhem.se archive.org
  • Persons, J. B., & Lisa, S. T. (2015). Developing and Using a Case Formulation to Guide Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, 5(2), 1 omnicsonline.org
  • Special issue: Team formulation. (2015). Clinical Psychology Forum, 275. bps.org.uk archive.org